Links out - Diagnosis and Management Information

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Communication is key: Stephen Wilkins, MPH, writes of improving practice management through improved patient/physician communication and its impact on care, in Mind the Gap.

Practical aspects in the management of hypokalemic periodic paralysis.   Author: Jacob O Levitt MD; Management considerations in hypokalemic periodic paralysis include accurate diagnosis, potassium dosage for acute attacks, choice of diuretic for prophylaxis, identification of triggers, creating a safe physical environment, peri-operative measures, and issues in pregnancy. A positive genetic test in the context of symptoms is the gold standard for diagnosis.

Genereviews comprehensive article for physicians on Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis: Authors: Damien Sternberg, MD, PhD, Nacira Tabti, MD, PhD, Bernard Hainque, PharmD, PhD; Disease characteristics. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HOKPP) is characterized by a paralytic form and a myopathic form. The paralytic form is characterized by attacks of reversible flaccid paralysis with concomitant hypokalemia, usually leading to paraparesis or tetraparesis but... read more

Genereviews comprehensive article for physicians on Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis, Paramytotonia and Paramyotonia Syndromes: Authors: Karin Jurkat-Rott, MD, PhD, Frank Lehmann-Horn, MD, PhD; Disease characteristics. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis is characterized by attacks of flaccid limb weakness (which may also include weakness of the muscles of the eyes, throat, and trunk), hyperkalemia (serum potassium concentration >5 mmol/L) or an increase of serum potassium concentration... read more

Genereviews comprehensive article for physicians on Andersen-Tawil Syndrome: Authors: Rabi Tawil, MD, Shannon L Venance, MD, PhD; Disease characteristics. Andersen-Tawil syndrome (referred to as ATS in this entry) is characterized by a triad of episodic flaccid muscle weakness (i.e., periodic paralysis), ventricular arrhythmias and prolonged QT interval, and anomalies such as.... read more

Review Article of Periodic Paralyses from Oxford Journals (2006) : Periodic paralyses (PPs) are rare inherited channelopathies that manifest as abnormal, often potassium (K)- sensitive, muscle membrane excitability leading to episodic flaccid paralysis. Hypokalaemic (HypoPP) and hyperkalaemic PP and Andersen-Tawil syndrome are genetically heterogeneous. Over the past decade mutations in genes encoding three ion channels, CACN1AS, SCN4A and KCNJ2, have been identified and account for at least 70% of the identified cases of PP and several allelic disorders. No prospective clinical studies have followed sufficiently large cohorts with characterized molecular lesions to draw precise conclusions... read more

Periodic Paralyses Review: from e-medicine/medscape; Naganand Sripathi, MD; The heterogeneous group of muscle diseases known as periodic paralyses (PP) is characterized by episodes of flaccid muscle weakness occurring at irregular intervals. Most of the conditions are hereditary and are more episodic than periodic. They can be divided conveniently into primary and secondary disorders. ... read more

Periodic Paralyses Differential Diagnoses from e-medicine/medscape: Naganand Sripathi, MD;

Periodic Paralysis Review: Handbook of Clinical Neurology Vol 86: Chapter four: Authors; Doreen Fialho MD and Michael G Hanna MD; Periodic paralysis is a disorder of skeletal muscle in which patients experience attacks of muscle weakness of variable duration and severity. The attacks can last from a few minutes to several days. The weakness in an attack can be generalized or focal... read more  

How to Read and Understand Lab Test Results: Baffled by your lab results, this is an excellent resource to help you understand them.

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