Paramyotonia Congentia and Paramyotonia Syndromes

Tracking Triggers - Food and Beverage Chart

Use this chart to help determine patterns to your food triggers. Blanks have been left for you to individualize the chart to your needs. Check food labels for sodium content, etc. This chart is intended to be utilized as an adjunct to a food journal.

Chart Comparing Periodic Paralyses

This chart allows comparison of the forms of primary periodic paralysis, symptoms, clinical and cardiac signs, effect of potassium, triggers and therapies. 


Comparison of Five Forms of Periodic Paralysis


The major features found in all the periodic paralyses are:

1. Attacks almost always begin before the age of 25, though occasionally later in life. ATS patients can develop first symptoms at any age.

2. Serum potassium fluctuates shortly before an attack, but serum potassium level will normalize before the attacks resolves and will be within the normal range between attacks. This is not a disorder of the blood but one in which there is an inappropriate shift of fluid, K+ and NA+ during attacks. 

The Potassium Draw: Special Measures

When evaluating patients for periodic paralysis it is vital to obtain accurate results from blood draws. Because potassium levels which vary only a fraction of a point may be enough to trigger weakness in some patients, the lab may need to be made aware of specialized procedures which should ideally be used to obtain samples for K+ evaluation.

From "A Manual of Laboratory Diagnostic Tests" by Frances Fischbach, Page 247-253.

Potassium (K+) Normal Values: 3.5-5.0 mmol/liter 4.0-4.7 mmol/liter (average)

The Abortive Attack - Weakness Between Attacks

Are Weakness and Fatigue Between Paralytic Attacks Symptoms of Periodic Paralysis?

Physician's Sheet: Acetazolamide Drug Interactions

Acetazolamide (aka Diamox) is frequently prescribed as therapy for the periodic paralyses. While most patients take this drug without incident it can interact with other drugs. Physicians should be aware of potential problems which might arise.

Malignant Hyperthermia and HyperKPP/PMC

Patients with Sodium channel HyperKPP and PMC mutations are at increased risk of Malignant Hyperthermia;

Malignant Hyperthermia

Periodic Paralysis Patients at Increased Risk of MH

Patients with Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis and Paramyotonia Congenita are at increased risk for Malignant Hyperthermia (MH) during surgery. 

Sleep Complaints in Periodic Paralysis

Giorgio Buzzi, MD, Neurologist

Buzzi G, Mostacci B, Sancisi E, Cirignotta F. Sleep complaints in Periodic Paralyses: a web survey. Functional Neurology 2001, 17 (3). From the Sleep Medicine Unit - Dept. of Neurology S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital - University of Bologna, Italy.


Section 1. Background: K+ and REM sleep homeostasis.

Section 2. The Periodic Paralysis International/HKPP Listserv Survey: results and discussion.

Physician's Information: Local Anaesthesia

Hao Cheng, MD   

The use of local anaesthetics on patients with periodic paralysis presents some unusual challenges. Many patients report that these agents trigger weakness or paralysis, a phenomenon which is substantiated in medical literature. Some patients also report that the agents do not produce the desired anaesthesia.


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