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Long-time exercise test in the diagnosis of periodic paralysis

Ding Z, Liu M, Cui L. Reference value of long-time exercise test in the diagnosis of primary periodic paralysis. Chin Med J (Engl). 2014;127(18):3219-23.


The long-time exercise test (ET) is used to diagnose the primary periodic paralyses (PPs). However the reference values of ET are many and various. This study aimed to investigate the reference value of long-time ET in the diagnosis of PPs.

The Membrane Potential, Voltage-Gated Ion Channels and Action Potentials

Action Potentials 1 - Resting Membrane Potential:

This is the first tutorial in a series on Action Potentials. This video looks at how the Na+/K+ ATPase Ion Transporter sets up a voltage across a membrane.

Action Potentials 2 - Voltage-Gated Ion Channels:

This second tutorial looks at how the Voltage Gated Na+ & K+ Ion channels change the voltage across the membrane of a cell and thus produce an action potential.

Calibrating the Cardy Potassium Meter

Calibrating the Cardy isn't complicated. It's basically wash and rinse, wash and rinse.  

To clean the sensor you can use distilled water, which is a lot less expensive than buying refills of the "de-ionized" water that comes with the kit. And don't use their testing tape to clean the sensor. Buy Kleenex brand facial tissues in those little pocket packs. They are potassium-free, and work just fine.

To calibrate the meter first:

Saliva K+ Calculator

Links out - Diagnosis and Management Information

Communication is key: Stephen Wilkins, MPH, writes of improving practice management through improved patient/physician communication and its impact on care, in Mind the Gap.

Role of Potassium in Maintaining Health

by Elson M. Haas, M.D.

Saliva to Serum Potassium Correlations

Correlation of Saliva and Human Blood Serum Potassium Results

The Cardy results are reported in ppm (parts per million), so saliva results are calculated by multiplying the saliva potassium measurements on the Cardy Potassium Meter by 0.026 to convert the values from ppm to mmol/L.

The correlation results are based on normal human ranges for blood serum as 3.5 - 5.5 mmol/L and for saliva as 8 - 40 mmol/L. The saliva values, as measured by the Cardy K+ meter, have proven accurate when compared to serum values drawn and processed in labs.

Testing Potassium Levels with the Cardy Potassium Ion Meter

For those who still own or use the Cardy C-131, the directions are below. The sensors on the older Cardy meters, those produced 10-15 years ago, were more reliable than newer ones. The Cardy C-131 cannot be considered entirely reliable any longer. The newer meter, the Laqua Twin, is totally unreliable and should not be relied on as a testing device.  

Rare Disorder Groups are Vital to Physicians

The Importance to Physicians of Support Groups for Rare Conditions


The Genetic Drift Vol. 8: Winter, 1992

Consumer Issues in Genetics Services

by Jack Dolcourt, M.D. Neonatologist

The Man Who Couldn't Walk

A case study

Originally published in Lifeline; Newsletter of The California Chapter of the American College of Emergency Physicians Christopher Fee, MD and Susan B. Promes, MD FACEP Alameda County California Medical Center, Highland General Hospital

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