The Patient and Caretakers Section

Physician's Summary: Andersen-Tawil Syndrome

Andersen-Tawil Syndrome (ATS) is a genetic disorder which causes a distinctive pattern of features;

1) Episodes of muscle weakness and/or flaccid paralysis (i.e periodic paralysis)

2) Certain kinds of heart rhythm disturbances and

3) Differences in facial and body structure.

Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis

Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HypoKPP) is one of the primary forms of periodic paralysis, caused by one or more mutations in the calcium, sodium or potassium ion channels in muscle membrane.

Features of Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis

There are two forms of HypoKPP, a paralytic form and a myopathic form.

Andersen-Tawil Syndrome

This comprehensive article is from the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD)

NORD gratefully acknowledges Rabi Tawil, MD, University of Rochester Medical Center, Professor of Neurology for assistance in the preparation of this report.

Synonyms of Andersen-Tawil Syndrome

Andersen Syndrome
Long QT Syndrome 7
General Discussion


Anaesthesia and peri-operative care in the primary Periodic Paralysis Disorders

Adverse reactions to anaesthesia, including life-threatening events, are a serious concern for patients with Periodic Paralysis Disorders. Many of our patients report serious events associated with anesthesia and side effects which may linger for days to months.

There is rarely time for a surgical team to comb through journals and texts for the specialized knowledge needed to care for the patient with periodic paralysis.

Nutrient Intake Calculator

Optimum Nutrition is important for maintanence of health. Make sure you are eating a healthy diet!

Here are sites where you can find:

All the nutrients in almost any food.

Sodium Intake should be kept below 2 grams daily for HypoKPP patients.

Sodium content in many different foods 

Converting Mg of Potassium to MeQ or MmoL


Source: Levitt, Jacob O, Practical aspects in the management of hypokalemic periodic paralysis. Journal of Translational Medicine 2008, 6:18 doi:10.1186/1479-5876-6-18:

The Use of Bactrim in the Periodic Paralyses

The antibiotic Bactrim is well-known to produce muscle weakness, even paralysis in patients with Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis.

The Membrane Potential, Voltage-Gated Ion Channels and Action Potentials

Action Potentials 1 - Resting Membrane Potential:

This is the first tutorial in a series on Action Potentials. This video looks at how the Na+/K+ ATPase Ion Transporter sets up a voltage across a membrane.

Action Potentials 2 - Voltage-Gated Ion Channels:

This second tutorial looks at how the Voltage Gated Na+ & K+ Ion channels change the voltage across the membrane of a cell and thus produce an action potential.

GUIDELINES ved indlæggelse for Hypokalemisk Periodika Paralyse Patient

GUIDELINES ved indlæggelse for Hypokalemisk Periodika Paralyse Patient

Navn & CPRnr
Højde:  cm
Vægt:  kg
Egen læge:
Emergency contact: navn (tlf: )
+ evt personlige assistent og/eller ledsager:

Akut behandling af et hypokalemisk paralytisk anfald

Akut behandling af et hypokalemisk paralytisk anfald

Første skridt:
1. Åndedræts- eller hjerteanfald er mulige
2. Tjek hjerte og vejrtrækning - dilatation i hjertet kan forårsage høj puls og lavt blodtryk.
3. Foretag måling af hjerterytme/EKG.
4. Mål elektrolytter for at bestemme serum K+
5. Giv ilt - blodprøve fra fingeren afspejler måske ikke iltmætningen pga. dilatation
6. Anbring patienten som ved koma for at undgå kvælning.


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